Sunday, October 16, 2005


Any of a group of hydrated double salts, usually consisting of aluminum sulfate, water of hydration, and the sulfate of another element. A whole series of hydrated double salts results from the hydration of the sulfate of a univalent cation (e.g., potassium) and the sulfate of any one of a number of trivalent cations (e.g., aluminum). Aluminum sulfate can thus form alums with

Thursday, July 28, 2005

Armco Inc.

Originally a manufacturer of sheet iron and steel, the company diversified, and its activities now

Tuesday, July 26, 2005

Sokollu, Mehmed Pasa

Ottoman grand vizier (chief minister) from June 1565, under the sultans Süleyman the Magnificent and Selim II, and perhaps the real ruler of the empire until the death of Selim in 1574. During his tenure, a war was fought with Venice (1570–73), in which the Ottoman navy was defeated in the famous Battle of Lepanto (Oct. 7, 1571), but

Saturday, July 23, 2005

Zaghlul, Sa'd

Abbas Mahmud al-Aqqad, Sa'd Zaghlul (1936), a full-length biography (in Arabic and not available in translation), is uncritically favourable to the subject. In English see E. Kedourie, “Sa'ad Zaghlul and the British,” in A. Hourani (ed.), Middle Eastern Affairs: Number Two, pp. 139–160 (1961), written by a hostile critic with a wide knowledge of Arabic sources; and the reasonably impartial obituary notice in The (London) Times (Aug. 24, 1927).

Wednesday, July 06, 2005


(French jeté: “thrown”), ballet leap in which the weight of the dancer is transferred from one foot to the other. The dancer “throws” one leg to the front, side, or back and holds the other leg in any desired position upon landing. Among the commonly seen forms of this step are the jeté battu, in which the legs are crossed in the air before the descent; the grand jeté, a broad,

Thursday, June 23, 2005

China, Educational and cultural policy changes

In the educational system, the reformers gave top priority to training technical, scientific, and scholarly talent to world-class standards. This involved the re-creation of a highly selective and elitist higher educational system, with admission based on competitive academic examination. Graduate study programs were introduced, and thousands of Chinese were

Tuesday, June 21, 2005


The original Native American inhabitants of Montserrat began to arrive in the Lesser Antilles about 3000 BC. Carib Indians, who arrived later, are said to have named the island Alliouagana (“Land of the Prickly Bush”). However, Montserrat was uninhabited by the time Christopher Columbus sighted it in November 1493, during his second voyage to the Americas. Columbus named the island